Recorded in the various spellings of Calderon, Caldaro, Caldeiro, Caldera, Calderero, Caldero, Calderari, Calders, and Caldes, this is a Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, and English surname, although all have the same Roman origins. In fact there are at least thirty five different spellings of the surname including such forms as Chaudret, Jodrellec, and Calderonello. The name however spelt, is job descriptive, for a maker or seller of large cooking pots or even baths. It derives from the Roman (Latin) 'caldarium' through the Olde French pre 7th century 'cauderon' and is found in all areas of Europe originally under Roman occupation. As the Roman Empire collapsed in the year 410 a.d., over fifteen hundred years ago, it gives some idea of the power the Empire once enjoyed and the amazing influence which it has continued to exert for all these centuries. In this case we have concentrated mainly upon the development of the surname in Spain, Italy, and the original Spanish colonies. Examples of the name recordings taken from civil and religious records, include Teresa Maria Caldero, at Olot, Gerona, Spain, on December 22nd 1677, and Antonio Calderone, at Terimi, Palermo, Italy, on December 12th 1682. Aguaron Calderon was christened at Aguaron, Zaragoza, Spain, on May 16th 1727, whilst Manuela Calderon was christened at Los Angeles, California, on June 1st 1850. The coat of arms has the blazon of a red field charged with eight gold saltires, overall a silver escutcheon charged with five black cauldrons. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Juan Boya Caldero, which was dated August 30th 1573, christened at San Esteban, Vizcaya, Spain, during the reign of King Phillip 11 of Spain, Emperor of Mexico, 1556 - 1598. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.