This interesting and unusual name is of medieval English origin and is a dialectal variant of "Bamborough", from a place so called in Northumberland, where the surname is still prevalent. Bamborough or Bamburgh was built by King Ida in 547 according to the "Handbook to the land Charters", and is recorded as "Bebbanburh", after a former queen "Bebba" of Aethelfrith, the second element is a derivation of the Old English "Burh", a fort. The placename is also recorded as "Bebbanburgh" (890), "Baenburg" (1130, Pipe Rolls), and Banburg (1212, Fees). During the Middle Ages when people left their birth place to seek work elsewhere, they would often adopt the placename as a means of identification. One Matthew Bambrough was christened on September 21st 1662 at Berwick-upon-Tweed. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Rachiell Bambrough (marriage to George Hymon), which was dated February 3rd 1653, at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, during the reign of Oliver Cromwell, known as "The Great Protector", 1649 - 1658. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.